GOVERNANCE: The Hopi Tribe is governed by a Chairman, Vice Chairman, and 22 Legislative Council members representing six villages: Village of Upper Moenkopi, Village of Bakabi, Village of Kykotsmovi, Village of Mishongnovi, Village of Sipaulovi, and First Mesa Consolidated Villages. Each village has its own separate election of representatives, and council members serve two-year terms. The Tribal Council meets quarterly, the first day of December, March, June, and September. The Hopi Tribe is in Congressional District 1; Legislative District 7.
CONSTITUTION AND RESEARCH PROTOCOL:
The Hopi Cultural Preservation office has established a protocol for research, publications, and recordings (motion, visual, sound, multimedia, and other mechanical devices). All researchers must go through an approval process that includes identifying a program/organizational sponsor; identifying tribal priorities; going through a tribal council resolution process; obtaining IRB permission; obtaining approval from the Hopi Cultural Preservation Office, and Tribal Council approval.
To listen to a video presentation on research protocol by Lalo Marvin (Hopi Cultural Preservation Office), see the Research Protocol Video, or read the video transcript.
COMMUNITY PROFILE: The Hopi are known as one of the oldest living cultures in documented history, having migrated north to Arizona in the 12th century. The Hopi are guardians of the sacred land they call Hopitutskwa. The Hopi Reservation, located on high and dry land, forced the Hopi to develop a unique agricultural practice known as "dry farming," a system of relying on water-retentive tillage methods rather than irrigation.
The Hopi and Navajo Tribes have a long history of conflict over land. After years of escalating conflict, the Navajo-Hopi Settlement Act of 1974 split land across tribes and forced relocation for those on the wrong side of the partition line. The Hopi Tribe Reservation is located in northeastern Arizona in Coconino and Navajo Counties. The Reservation is made up of 12 villages on three mesas (known as First, Second, and Third Mesa) on more than 1.5 million acres. Each of the older villages is made up of a hierarchy of clans based on the order of their arrival to the area. Modern villages and clan leaders trace their authority and rights in land to these original sources. The Bear clan tends to be regarded as the first and highest ranking clan in a number of the villages, with the male head of the clan serving as the village leader or "Kikmongwi."
Kykotsmovi, the seat of the Hopi Tribal Government, is located just below Third Mesa. The oldest continuously inhabited village in the United States is Old Oraibi, located on top of Third Mesa, which is said to have been in existence since 1150 A.D. when the Hopi came to the area. Traditional Hopi houses were made of dried clay and stone, with flat roofs and multiple levels accessible by ladder. The bottom level was underground (called a Kiva), and was used for religious ceremonies.
The Hopi are a matrilineal society organized by clan membership. Hopi artisans are known for pottery, paintings, weaving, and carvings. In particular, First Mesa is known for pottery, Second Mesa is known for coiled basketry, and Third Mesa is known for wicker basketry, weaving, Kachina doll carving, and silversmithing. Visitors are welcome to visit the Three Mesas, but photography, video recording, audio recording, sketching, and note-taking are not allowed.
Hopi Tribe Reservation or Off-Reservation Trust Land
|Number of Households
|Average Household Size
|Population Under Age 18
|Population Over Age 65
|Speaks a Language Other Than English in Household
|Owner-Occupied Housing Units
|Age 25+ with High School Degree or Higher
|Median Household Income
|Below Federal Poverty Threshold
|Households with at Least One Computing Device
|Households with a Desktop/Laptop
*All statistics are from the 2014-2018 American Community Survey, 5-year estimates.